What is Mixed Migration?
The concept of mixed migration is a relatively new phenomenon and is of rising importance, both in terms of sheer numbers and with regard to political significance at national, regional and global levels. One definition frames mixed migration as consisting of complex population movements including refugees, asylum seekers, economic migrants and other migrants (IOM), while another describes them as people travelling in an irregular manner along similar routes, using similar means of travel, but for different reasons (UNHCR).
This phenomenon reflects the tendencies for an increasing number of people to migrate with greater risks, in search of a better future in more affluent parts of a globalized world. It also indicates that people are on the move for a combination of reasons that fundamentally are related to safeguarding physical and economic security. Conceptually mixed migration includes.
- Irregular migrants (dislodged by a real and/or perceived inability to thrive (economic migrants) or motivated by aspirations, a desire to unite with other family members etc. Their movement is often organized and facilitated by smugglers, although some move independently).
- Refugees and asylum-seekers (forced migrants).
- Victims of trafficking (involuntary migrants).
- Stateless persons.
- Unaccompanied minors and separated children and other vulnerable persons on the move.
These complex tendencies in the migration sector have contributed to increasing alarm, and in some cases xenophobia, in receiving countries. A development of more elaborate policies, systems and barriers have emerged or are emerging to regulate the movement of people across borders, in particular from the South to the North, but increasingly also within the South. In the Horn of Africa region this is evidenced by confused or changing immigration policies and laws towards different groups of irregular migrants.